Skip to main content

Deploying and Invoking Contracts

In Neo N3 most of the functions are provided by contracts. ScriptHash is the unique identifier of the contract, and it is usually a necessary parameter for invoking contracts.

This document introduces the following SDK features:

  • The construction method of contract deployment transaction
  • Invoking methods in the contract under read-only mode
  • Nep17API class that encapsulates the methods for invoking NEP17 contracts

Contract deployment#

ContractClient provides the method, CreateDeployContractTxAsync, to construct deployment transactions of the contract. The parameters are contract scripts, manifests, and account key pairs for payment of system and network fees, where contract scripts and manifests are available from the compilation. There must be sufficient GAS in the sender account.

Read the nef and manifest.json files of the contract:

// read nefFile & manifestFileNefFile nefFile;using (var stream = new BinaryReader(File.OpenRead(nefFilePath), Encoding.UTF8, false)){    nefFile = stream.ReadSerializable<NefFile>();}
ContractManifest manifest = ContractManifest.Parse(File.ReadAllBytes(manifestFilePath));

Construct a contract deployment transaction:

// create the deploy contract transactionTransaction transaction = await contractClient.CreateDeployContractTxAsync(nefFile.ToArray(), manifest, senderKeyPair);

After the transaction is constructed, you need to broadcast it on the blockchain:

// Broadcast the transaction over the Neo networkawait client.SendRawTransactionAsync(transaction);Console.WriteLine($"Transaction {transaction.Hash.ToString()} is broadcasted!");

After the transaction is added to the blockchain you can get the transaction execution status to check if the contract is deployed successfully:

// print a message after the transaction is on chainWalletAPI neoAPI = new WalletAPI(client);await neoAPI.WaitTransactionAsync(transaction)    .ContinueWith(async (p) => Console.WriteLine($"Transaction vm state is  {(await p).VMState}"));

Here is the complete code:

using Neo.Network.P2P.Payloads;using Neo.Network.RPC;using Neo.SmartContract;using Neo.SmartContract.Manifest;using Neo.Wallets;using System;using Neo.IO;using System.IO;
namespace ConsoleApp1{    class Program    {        static void Main(string[] args)        {            Test().GetAwaiter().GetResult();            Console.Read();        }
        private static async Task Test()        {            // choose a neo node with rpc opened, here we use the localhost            RpcClient client = new RpcClient(new Uri("http://localhost:20332"), null, null, ProtocolSettings.Load("config.json"));            ContractClient contractClient = new ContractClient(client);
            string nefFilePath = "sc/Contract1.nef";            string manifestFilePath = "sc/Contract1.manifest.json";
            // read nefFile & manifestFile            NefFile nefFile;            using (var stream = new BinaryReader(File.OpenRead(nefFilePath), Encoding.UTF8, false))            {                nefFile = stream.ReadSerializable<NefFile>();            }
            ContractManifest manifest = ContractManifest.Parse(File.ReadAllBytes(manifestFilePath));
            // deploying contract needs sender to pay the system fee            KeyPair senderKey = Utility.GetKeyPair("L53tg72Az8QhYUAyyqTQ3LaXMXBE3S9mJGGZVKHBryZxya7prwhZ");
            // create the deploy transaction            Transaction transaction = await contractClient.CreateDeployContractTxAsync(nefFile.ToArray(), manifest, senderKey).ConfigureAwait(false);
            // Broadcast the transaction over the NEO network            await client.SendRawTransactionAsync(transaction).ConfigureAwait(false);            Console.WriteLine($"Transaction {transaction.Hash.ToString()} is broadcasted!");
            // print a message after the transaction is on chain            WalletAPI neoAPI = new WalletAPI(client);            await neoAPI.WaitTransactionAsync(transaction)               .ContinueWith(async (p) => Console.WriteLine($"Transaction vm state is  {(await p).VMState}"));        }    }}

Contract invocation simulation#

ContractClient provides the method TestInvokeAsync to simulate the contract invocation, which does not affect the data on the chain after execution. You can directly invoke the contract method that reads the data. For example, the following example invokes the name method in the NEO native contract.

// choose a neo node with rpc openedRpcClient client = new RpcClient("");ContractClient contractClient = new ContractClient(client);
// get the contract hashUInt160 scriptHash = NativeContract.NEO.Hash;
// test invoking the method provided by the contract RpcInvokeResult invokeResult = await contractClient.TestInvokeAsync(scriptHash, "name").ConfigureAwait(false);Console.WriteLine($"The name is {invokeResult.Stack.Single().GetString()}");

Or you can use MakeScript to construct the script you want to execute and then invoke the method InvokeScriptAsync in RpcClientto get the execution result.

// choose a neo node with rpc openedRpcClient client = new RpcClient("");
// get the contract hashUInt160 scriptHash = NativeContract.NEO.Hash;
byte[] script = scriptHash.MakeScript("name");// call invoke scriptRpcInvokeResult invokeResult = await client.InvokeScriptAsync(script).ConfigureAwait(false);Console.WriteLine($"The name is {invokeResult.Stack.Single().GetString()}");

Contract invocation (on-chain transactions)#

Generally invoking a deployed contract on the blockchain contains the following steps:

  1. Construct the script to invoke

    Take the transfer method of native contract Neo as an example:

    // construct the script, in this example, we will transfer 1024 NEO to receiverUInt160 scriptHash = NativeContract.NEO.Hash;byte[] script = scriptHash.MakeScript("transfer", sender, receiver, 1024);
  2. Construct the transaction:

    // initialize the TransactionManagerFactory with rpc client and magic// fill the script and cosignersTransactionManager txManager = await new TransactionManagerFactory(client, 5195086)    .MakeTransactionAsync(script, cosigners).ConfigureAwait(false);// add signature and sign transaction with the added signatureTransaction tx = await txManager.AddSignature(sendKey).SignAsync().ConfigureAwait(false);
  3. Broadcast the transaction on the blockchain:

    // broadcasts the transaction over the Neo networkawait client.SendRawTransactionAsync(tx).ConfigureAwait(false);
  4. Wait until the transaction is added to the blockchain and then get the transaction execution status to make sure the contract is invoked successfully:

    // print a message after the transaction is on chainWalletAPI neoAPI = new WalletAPI(client);await neoAPI.WaitTransactionAsync(tx)    .ContinueWith(async (p) => Console.WriteLine($"Transaction vm state is  {(await p).VMState}"));

For complete code refer to Transaction Construction.

NEP-17 Contracts#

Nep17API encapsulates the method that generates transfer transactions. The above transaction process can be simplified to:

Nep17API nep17API = new Nep17API(client);Transaction tx = await nep17API.CreateTransferTxAsync(scriptHash, sendKey, receiver, 1).ConfigureAwait(false);

Additionally, Nep17API also provides a set of simple methods to get data:

// get nep17 namestring name = await nep17API.NameAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash).ConfigureAwait(false);
// get nep17 symbolstring symbol = await nep17API.SymbolAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash).ConfigureAwait(false);
// get nep17 token decimalsbyte decimals = await nep17API.DecimalsAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash).ConfigureAwait(false);
// get nep17 token total supplyBigInteger totalSupply = await nep17API.TotalSupplyAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash).ConfigureAwait(false);
// get the balance of nep17 tokenUInt160 account = Utility.GetScriptHash("NXjtqYERuvSWGawjVux8UerNejvwdYg7eE");BigInteger balance = await nep17API.BalanceOfAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash, account).ConfigureAwait(false);
// get token informationRpcNep17TokenInfo tokenInfo = await nep17API.GetTokenInfoAsync(NativeContract.NEO.Hash).ConfigureAwait(false);